Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Understanding Organisations Management - Essay Example Understanding Organisations Management Ritzer compares society today to a have adopted the characteristics of such a fast food chain. While sociologists like Weber viewed political systems like bureaucracy to explain the shift in society, Ritzer uses the example of a fast food place. He claims it to be far more representative of the contemporary paradigm into which society has shifted today. The concept is better described by the four terms employed by Ritzer himself. They are used to better understand and explain this concept. These four terms are vital to determine the reliability and efficiency of any organization. The first of this is efficiency. Ritzer emphasizes the importance of this term. It represents the optimal technique that can be employed to succeed in any task. However, efficiency is not just a technique used to bring optimum results. Ritzer prefers it to have a very specific meaning which in intoned with entire concept of Mcdonaldization.This means the speed with which the individual is able to move from one point to another. This is evident in the service provided by Mcdonalds. It aims to satisfy its customer's hunger in the least amount of time possible. Thus, they work to remove hunger and achieve full satisfaction in a limited period of time. This idea of efficiency is ever dominant in the establishment that works to fulfill its customers need in the shortest period possible. In this way, the work of an organization is thought to be one that allows an individual to gain results in the shortest time instead. Another term employed by Mcdonaldization is calculability. This mode ensures that the individual uses data that can be quantified rather than ones than are subjective. In this mode, an organization has to pay attention to the numerical and statistics rather than tastes and behavior. In this formula, quantity is seen as another term for quality. This idea makes sense when compared to the work done at a fast food chain. In this organization, if food is provided at a fast rate, the quality ceases to matter. In other words, by providing a large quantity of food within a short span of time, the individual ensures that the consumer assumes it to be of the highest quality. This is because individuals are conditioned to compare how much quantity they receive to the money they paid for it. The organization works to ensure its consumer s that they receive a large amount of goods for a small quantity that they have paid. In return, the consumer automatically assumes this to be the best quality available. This concept can also be employed for workers. According to Ritzer, the employee is judged by the degree of work they can produce in the workplace. This is contrary to the kind or quality of work they produce, which assumes secondary importance. The Mcdonaldization of Society also speaks of the predictability. This can be meant to explain the standardization of services that are present within society. The concept is further ensued in the idea of uniformity in the services that are given by an organization to its consumers. Working against the idea of Mcdonalds, Ritzer shows how the consumer at the fast food chain can expect the same service to be provided to them, no matter which outlet of this food enterprise they visit. Once again, this concept is not unique to
Monday, February 3, 2020
Direct Practice in Social Work - Essay Example Therapy is likely to be most effective when a therapist is fully integrated into the treatment relationship; hence a therapistÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to fully and honestly express feelings and perceptions may be helpful in dispelling the notion of a Ã¢â¬Å"false frontÃ¢â¬ being put forward by the practitioner (Clark, 2007:71). The objective of treatment is to gain authenticity in the therapist-client relationship, but these disclosures should be Ã¢â¬Å"purposeful and well timedÃ¢â¬ if they are to be beneficial (Clark, 2007:71). If on the other hand, such self disclosure is not purposeful and is done in a judgmental sort of way, it could be problematic because it could undermine the efficacy of the treatment and thereby, the therapistÃ¢â¬â¢s objective of gaining authenticity in the relationship. 2. The client Linda is a sexually abused person with a very negative perception of herself. Hence, it may be much better to focus upon the client herself and work towards helping her deal with her negative perceptions of herself rather than involving the therapistÃ¢â¬â¢s personal reactions to the client. Linda sees a rift between the therapist and herself, she perceives the therapist as being in a position of superiority. Hence if the therapist talks to Linda about her personal reactions to her client, then it needs to be done in a positive, focused manner. Rather than the therapist using a self involved statement such as Ã¢â¬Å"right now, IÃ¢â¬â¢m feeling a little corneredÃ¢â¬ , it may be more effective to couch the therapist reaction in a more positive and honest way. For example, if the therapist had responded more honestly by stating, Ã¢â¬Å"I have not personally been through such a shattering experience as you have but as I listen to you, I am impressed by the strength an d courage you have displayed in this situation. While you may feel that I am in a superior position, I tend to view this situation differently; I feel that you are far superior to me because you have displayed
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Hospitality Industry Tourism Essay Introduction Currently, the subject hospitality management is being offered by various colleges and universities all around the world. Students and graduates of hospitality management are becoming more and more in demand in hospitality industries all around the world. Hospitality management is the academic study of the hospitality industry. Hospitality courses prepare students to face the challenges of the corporate world. Hospitality management courses also provide all the training for the students to cope with the workloads of the hospitality industry. Other than that, these hospitality management courses also prepare students with leadership skills and qualities so that students have the right kind of qualities and attitude to cope in the corporate world later on. Hospitality management can be divided into various different disciplines such as culinary arts, hotel management, tourism management etc. Each different branch of this course prepares student and graduates to face the different challenges in different field of the hospitality industry. As hospitality grows into becoming one of the most important economic sectors in the world, more and more graduates of hospitality management is being demanded in to this fields. What is hospitality industry? Why is it becoming an important in the economic sector around the world? The dictionary definition of hospitality is the friendly reception and treatment of strangers. The hospitality industry consists of businesses and institutions involving food and beverage, tourism and all kinds of lodging establishments. The friendly reception and treatment of guests is the responsibility of the people who work in the hospitality industry. 1.1.1 According to statistics, Lodging is the seventh largest industry in the United States of America and food and beverage service is the fourth largest. Twenty-three cents of every dollar spent by a U.S. traveler are spent in a hotel and twenty-one cents are spent in a food and beverage establishment. This shows the importance of hospitality industry to a countrys economy. Almost half of every penny spent by a traveler is contributed to two of the largest establishment in hospitality industry. 1.2 Since we all know that there are very good opportunities and bright future working in the hospitality industry, but what are the advantages and disadvantages of working in the hospitality industry? 1.2.1 Servicing in the hospitality industry is subjected to personal interest. To people who are interested in social skills and interpersonal communication skills, they may find hospitality industry an interesting career field. This is because in hospitality industry, we are dealing with people, servicing people where almost all of them are strangers. A great deal of interpersonal communication skills are involved in this industry. This may be of an advantage or a disadvantage as not all people are born with fluency in interpersonal communication skills though it can be acquired through a great deal of training. 1.3 A career in the hospitality industry can provide one with responsibility, advancement, diversity and personal satisfaction. A career in the hospitality requires a great deal of responsibility due to the high amount of workload. Advancement in hospitality industry is so when opportunities are provided for employees to be promoted to a higher post in the industry. 1.3.1 As said earlier, hospitality industry is an industry which involves serving guests and customers who are strangers most of the time. This is meant by diversity in hospitality industry. Each day, employees of the hospitality industry face people who come from different part of the world; this proves the diversity of the hospitality industry. Other than that, people who are interested and have acquired skills such as interpersonal communication skills, they might achieve personal satisfaction working in this industry. 1.4 The hospitality industry is full of opportunities for great advancement provided one puts in a great deal of hard work. Hospitality industry can be divided into so many fields and branches. As stated earlier, hospitality industry is referred to as one of the fastest growing economic sector around the world. In hospitality industry, there are countless job opportunities offered to employees. From waiter at a restaurant to Chief Executive Officer (CEO) at large hotels, all of these jobs are classified under the hospitality line. Moreover, the hospitality industries nowadays are facing a serious problem on the lacking of human resources. More and more employees are needed in the hospitality industry. If one were to graduate with a degree in hospitality management subject, he or she will never have to worry about not getting a good job with good pay. 1.5 However, working in the hospitality industry brings some disadvantages too. Hospitality industry is known for its extended, odd and uncertain hours of operation. Most hospitality premises have to operate 24 hours per day, if any colleagues are on leave, others might have to extend their working time or work load in order to compensate the efficiency of work. For instance, ski or water sports resorts operate seasonally based on weather conditions. Some restaurants operate only during breakfast or lunch hours. Employees working under these sectors of the hospitality management have to cope themselves with the irregular working time. However, employees are human too; they need adequate rest time in order to maintain high work efficiency. There are cases where employees work over time just to compensate the work load of absent workers, they fell sick or ill. 1.6 Hospitality industry is also known for its tremendous workload. Employees working under the hospitality industry have to put in a great deal of hard work in order to cope up with the workload in the hospitality industry. However, if an employee graduates from any hospitality management sector, he or she will be trained to handle the workload that they might face when working in the corporate world later on. 1.7 Working under the hospitality industry allows one to gain a lot of skills which cannot be acquired through studying. Employees who worked under the hospitality industry have found to possess of effective communication skills, innovation, creativity, leadership qualities, critical thinking skills, decision making skills, negotiation and conflict management. If you consider the working routine and responsibility of one who work under the hospitality industry, you will find that these skills are relatively important for employees in order to serve the guests or customers well. From a front desk representative to a general manger in a hotel, they must at least possess of a few of the skills from the list above. Especially for those who work in the management level, they must possess of all the skills mentioned above so that he or she could lead the team well and also be a role model to his or her staff. 1.7.1 Working under the hospitality industry also enables employees to acquire a very important skill teamwork. Teamwork is one of the most well regarded qualities in the corporate world. In the hospitality industry, staff of the whole operation work as a team and this requires a great deal of teamwork. When employees and employers practice good teamwork and work together to handle big cases, the problem seems to be solved efficiently and effectively. CONCLUSION Hospitality industry is a fast growing sector and is economically important to the world. Tourism which is one of the fields in the hospitality industry shrinks the world by providing a more in-depth look at the enormity and complexity of international travel. Working in the hospitality industry has both advantages and disadvantages and is subjected to peoples point of view. It also depends on ones interest. As said earlier, people who have good interpersonal communication skills will find working in the hospitality industry an easy feat but to those who does not possess of good interpersonal communication skills, they would not like it in the hospitality industry. Question 2: Find out the factors affecting travel and tourism. Explain in detail. Introduction Travel and tourism is a very common term when it comes under hospitality management. At least 20 years ago, travelling is considered as a big deal to most people but now with the aid of modern transportation, travelling seemed to be an easy feat for everyone. Nowadays, with major airlines companies offering cheap fares and giving out various promotions, everyone can just travel to the destination of their choice at a relatively low price. This has indirectly affected the business of most tourism agency. More and more people can afford to travel to any destination of their choice without having to burn a hole in their pockets anymore. The government in Malaysia has also come out with various efforts or ideas to promote travel and tourism in the country. Travel and tourism is a high profitable sector to the countrys economy. The Malaysian government is putting great effort into making the country a tourism country. The annual Matta Fair is organized by government bodies to promote tourism in the country as well as attracting tourists from other countries. Other than that, the government also has promoted Malaysia in many of the international expos and has greatly raised the name of Malaysia to the world. Since travel and tourism is made such an easy feat for everyone nowadays, there are still some barriers that stop people from travelling or other factors that cause people to travel to that particular place regularly. Actually what are the factors that affect travel and tourism? What is travel and tourism? According to the World Travel Organization (WTO), travel and tourism is regarded as the activities of persons travelling and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purpose. Therefore, people who are considered travelers or tourists are those who are away from their normal place or residence for a period of up to one year in which they will return home after that, taking part in activities that would normally be associated with leisure and tourism and on a visit that is temporary and short term. 2.1. Determinants are those factors that influence one individuals decision-making process. In short, determinants are the factors affecting ones decision whether to travel or not. Determinants can be further subdivided onto two categories which are personal factors that influenced the tourist and external factors that influenced the tourist. 2.1.1 Personal determinants are one of the factors affecting tourists decision making. Personal determinants can be divided into four categories: Circumstances of the tourist such as the health, disposable income/savings, leisure time, work commitments and family commitments. Knowledge of tourist regarding the destination, availability of various tourist products and prices differences among competitive tourist products. Attitude and perception of the destination, tourism organization, political views, particular country and cultures, modes of travel, how advance to plan and book a trip and what constitutes value for money. Experience of types of holidays, different destinations, products offered among competitive tourism organizations, taking trips with particular individuals or groups and attempting to find discounted prices. 2.1.2 When the personal determinants are taken as whole for the entire population, it would represent a market opportunity for the tourism industry. For example, with the growing affluence of the workforce and pressure in the workplace, many people would look forward to a long weekend to take a short break or vacation. The need for tourists to take a short break from work is to stimulate and rejuvenate their energy. 2.1.3 Situational factors such as time, money, health or marketing influence can intervene, as a facilitator or as an inhibitor, in making travel decision. Tourists decisions are important as it directly affects the travel and tourism. Belk (1975) identified five types of situational variables which will affect tourist behavior and decision made: Physical surrounding includes weather, geographical location, dÃ ©cor, sounds, lights, aromas, tangible signs and display of products, and other materials. The sunny weather can be considered as part of the destinations physical surrounding. Social surrounding includes other people and their characteristics, roles, and interactions. The social network can provide information and can act as influencer in a choice for a particular travel destination. Crowding is another situational variable, where people from crowded cities may seek isolated places to spend their holiday for a rest and to be alone for a while. Temporal perspective includes the time period, time constraints, and elapsed or expected time. The time situation is important in tourism since many holidays are limited by duration of time. For example, holidays can only be taken during school holiday or during certain says when you go on an annual leave. Tourists also prefer to go for a holiday after a time elapsed since the last holiday travel. Task definition includes the orientation, intent role, or frame of a person where certain situational may become relevant. For example, one would decide on certain criteria to go for a vacation during different time period. Antecedent states is where a situation would shape the perception, evaluation, and acceptance of the current condition, such as a person receiving a bonus, may suddenly decide to go for holiday on a STAR cruise. 2.1.4 Social and cultural influences are other factor that affects the travel and tourism. Most of the social and cultural structures are pervasive and intangible in nature. However, most tourists are unaware of the influences of these structures, even if the structures are actually embedded in their travel decision making. One of the major social influences are groups including family members and relatives. Reference group can be defines as a collection of people that an individual use as a standard for his or her attitudes, beliefs, values and behavior development. For example, since many officemates will be spending their holidays in China, one may be aspire to join the group by deciding to go along to the holiday in China. Culture can be considered as a broad, impersonal reference group consisting of the knowledge, behaviors, customs, and techniques that are socially acquired or learned by an individual. It includes beliefs, values, norms, signs, habits and non-normative behavior. Thus, culture can influence the way an individual behaves as a consumer or as a tourist. For example, one of the promotional themes to promote Malaysia as a tourist destination is to exhibit Malaysia as a melting pot of various cultures that are found in Asia. Cultures also exist within overall culture and are known as subcultures. Those subcultures are groups based on region, race, language, religion, age, social class or other factors. The island of Bali in Indonesia has been prominently promoted as a cultural destination, based on religion. Social class is another example of subculture. Social class is a product of division in society on the basis of status and prestige. Education, occupation, wealth and income are some of the basis used to explain the belonging of one social class. Some tourist destinations tend to appeal to certain groups of social class of people. For example, the French Riviera is favored among the higher social class people. Places like Langkawi Island may attract people from all social classes, but people may differentiate classes once they arrive on the island by staying at different kinds of hotels categories. In some society in Indonesia, travelling abroad is considered as a social status and sometimes the connotation of Has Been Abroad or HBA is attached to the individual. 2.2 Apart from personal determinants that we have discussed earlier, there are also some external determinants that may affect consumer travel decision making. Some of external determinants are: 1. Views from friends and relatives 2. Marketing activities in the tourism industry 3. The influence from the media 4. National-level politics and factors like economy, social and technology 5. International-level politics and factors like economy, social and technology Most of these external determinants can be further subdivided into sub-factors: Political sub-factors: Government legislation and policy, like capital control restricting amount of money taken out of the country Immigration restrictions and visa requirements Civil disorder and terrorism Taxation policy, for example, airport tax, exit fees Media sub-factors Travel channel Holiday features reported on television, in newspaper, magazines and guidebooks. Non-travel channel news reported in national Geographic programs and in news programs Marketing activities: Marketing activities by national tourist organization Brochures from travel agencies Special promotions by hotels and other travel operators. The extent of the personal and the external determinants influence the tourist behavior depend on factors such as tourists personality and their lifestyle. Extrovert people are more likely to take account of the external determinant such as the views from friends and relatives while the introvert people prefer to rely on their own experiences. People who watch news regularly and are very much concerned about the world affairs may be influenced by those external determinants compared to those people who are not worried or do not know of the situation of that country, may not consider this external factor. Some of these determinants can either be a catalyst or a constraint to the tourists motivation and desire to travel. For example, high disposable income is a catalyst and low disposable income is a constraint. Travel brochure with glossy and rosy picture of a resort destination would attract potential tourist to visit, in contrast to a cheap looking flyer. Conclusion Tourists do not make rational decision based on perfect information. They might not realize most of the determinants, as mentioned earlier. There are tourists who are aware of the various determinants to be considered in the decision making, but choose to ignore these determinants. People tend to use other aspect of lie such as pressure and emotion, to dictate their travel decision. Most literature in tourism marketing noted that there are relatively long periods spent in travel decision making process, like thinking about the vacation, collecting information, and evaluating the alternatives. Currently there is a growing trend in the tourist industry of the last-minute purchase: decision to travel. Working people have a high desire to go for a short trip whenever there is an opportunity to do so and are more willingly to go to a less interesting destination if it is offered at a low price.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
To what extent can an HR manager ensure that policy / policies regarding developing people for performance in an organisation are put into practice
Introduction As it is a relatively new focus for modern organizations, human resources is increasingly viewed as paramount to a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success, as Cascio (1991) cited Ã¢â¬Å"people are our most valuable asset.Ã¢â¬ Long gone is the ideology of a company being represented by its assets and wealth, rather it is the personnel side of business which faces significant challenges, as Ulrich (1998) cited numerous ways in which human resources is invaluable to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s business notably the use of organizational knowledge and adaptability to the ever changing business environment. Due to this focus on people in organizations human resource managers now arguably have more value than the majority of individuals operating in different functions (Lengnick-Hall and Lengnick-Hall 1988.) The majority of business academics support the newly formed metaphor of a business being an organism as opposed to the out dated view of a business as a machine or process, which was shown by OÃ¢â¬â¢Neill (2 007) to be evidently reductionist in the way it views organisational procedures. OÃ¢â¬â¢Neill highlighted that whilst the biological metaphor was clearly more complex, its acknowledgement of sub systems and informal mechanisms makes it much more suitable for the modern workplace, where human resourceÃ¢â¬â¢s importance largely outweighs the more operational aspects of a business. HR and Competitive Advantage The role of human resources and human resource managers is now so vital to companies that many academics view the area as a source of major competitive advantage to a firm (Ferris et al 1999, Wright et al 2006.) This view sees that human resources as a function is best to be integrated into all of the businesses primary functions (Arthur 1994) and Miles and Charles (1984) even went so far as to include human resources as part of an organizations strategic decisional processes. However whilst many support this increased focus on the personnel side of a business, for instance Teece et al (1997) believed the transfer of knowledge and skills in developing the workforce is the only real dynamic capability a modern company can hold, Dunford et al (2001) highlighted that the human resource function has struggled to justify its position in organizations (see Drucker 1954, Stewart 1996.) Whilst the importance of people in organizations has little opposition, many view human resource professio nals to have limited importance on the workforce and implementing various policies. Whilst Barney and Wright (1996) examined and supported the importance of a human resource partner in running businesses, it could be argued that whilst making the relevant human resource decisions is necessary, using middle / junior human resource managers to promote these policies is more difficult. Gunnigle (1977) for instance noted that whilst senior management possesses a lot of authority in making personnel decisions, a range of different approaches is suitable for implementing policies, from a Ã¢â¬Å"high strategic integration of human resource issues in strategic planning to more piecemeal ad hoc approaches to managing human resources.Ã¢â¬ Human resources development As human resources has become so central to organizations, policies regarding developing a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s personnel have emerged as the focal point for many academics. Defined by Swanson and Holton (2009) as Ã¢â¬Å"a process of developing and unleashing expertise for the purpose of improving individual, team, work processes and organizational system performance,Ã¢â¬ human resource development is seen by Nadler (1970) to contain three key components, these being training, education and development for the workforce. Developing policies to improve a workforces skills and successfully implementing them assumes a pivotal role in shaping a businessÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy (Torraco and Swanson 1995.) In fact what Agrawal (1994, cited by Torraco and Swanson 1995) discovered is that whilst the majority of organizations have sufficient technology and policies regarding personnel development, in reality many employees are not actually trained sufficiently to use new equipment. This therefore im plies that managers need to take a more proactive approach in ensuring development policies are put into practice. However due to the vagueness of the development concept, Swanson and Holton (2009) simply look at it in terms of being a problem defining and solving process. The question then becomes what influence a human resources manager has in a modern workplace scenario to implement policies. Whilst Guest et al (2003) found a greater use of human resource management is associated with lower labour turnover and increased employee satisfaction, the actual power a human resources manager has over making changes to workforce policies is limited as seen by Miles (1965) due to the ideological gap between the workforce and managers. Miles used the example of the gap between how managers prefer a different personnel approach to their subordinates than to their superiors. This discrepancy showed that whilst managers welcome a focus on their abilities and development when regarding more se nior managers, they would rather adopt a human relations approach to the workforce, whereby the focus is on morale. Therefore managers in this position could be reluctant to use any formal power they may have to implement new policies. KanterÃ¢â¬â¢s (1989) findings also point towards this conclusion, as Kanter discovered a number of changes in the employee Ã¢â¬â manager relationship, notably the reduction of power and distance between a manager and their subordinates. Whilst KanterÃ¢â¬â¢s idea that managers now have to implement ideas through more interpersonal and informal means is appealing to a workforce, the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"managers are integrators and facilitators, not watchdogs,Ã¢â¬ could prove to be problematic when it comes to implementing strict policies on the workforce. Employee factors In order to fully analyse how a human resources manager can successfully implement workplace policies regarding development, various employee factors come into consideration. Firstly there is the importance of the style of communication used. As mentioned previously the distance between managers and workers particularly in large organizations necessitates the effective use of communication channels. According to Soliman and Spooner (2000) using a two way free flowing communication system is the most appropriate method of dealing with development, because it would allow not only for managers to communicate policies to the workforce, it would also allow two way feedback on the said procedures. This idea of a loop of communication regarding development is supported by Bradley (2002) who argued that a Ã¢â¬Å"coherent evaluation and feedback systemÃ¢â¬ should be integrated into every new workplace policy. This is especially vital for development due to the highly personal nature of the issue. Only through effective feedback will human resource managers have the required knowledge about the workforce to ensure that suitable development policies are implemented. A relevant suggestion on how this ideology could be used in a modern business scenario was proposed by Mehra and Brass (2001) in suggesting the use of social networks to communicate feedback to managers. Another clear factor in a human resource managerÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to promote development policies is the emotional intelligence of the staff. Sy et al (2006) showed that high levels of emotional intelligence clearly correlate with workplace performance and satisfaction. This suggests that a manager with a highly emotionally intelligent workforce would have an easier time ensuring policies are put in place. Cherniss (2001) even went so far as to cite Ã¢â¬Å"self managementÃ¢â¬ as a key component of the framework of emotional intelligence, implying perhaps that if a workforce was mature and skilled enough the job of the human resource manager would be completed by the staff. However whilst this may seem appealing to managers there is also a problematic issue with emotionally intelligent workforces. The majority of modern workforces possess clear elements of emotional intelligence and often utilise informal learning in their position (Eraut 2004.) Garrick (1998) noted the danger of this informal learning style, that it is not controlled in any way by the management team. With the increased trend for workplace environments to be based around intelligent project / task teams (Hechanova-Alampay and Beehr 2001) human resource managers could often find themselves facing insurmountable odds if they wished to implement unpopular policies. Therefore in order for managers to be able to put policies in place they must ensure in addition to there being effective communication channels in place that a degree of employee commitment is drawn from the workforce. Studies by Romzek (1990) proved the use of employees holding a psychological tie to their place of work, and highlighted the managerial influence on this subject. The way in which managers can ensure employees hold this commitment is displayed by VischerÃ¢â¬â¢s (2006) ranges of environmental comfort. As long as employees show a certain level of comfort human resource managers should be able to implement new development policies. Managerial Factors There has been a large amount of research completed on the new role that managers now face in organizations, namely the human resource function where research seeks to provide guidance on how to deal with specific workforces (Geroy et al 2000.) This is largely due to the new styled work of managers as they face a changing psychological contract with their workforce and so need to build commitment in their implementing of policies (Hiltrop 1999.) This therefore means that managers need to adapt traditional managerial styles if they wish to have the power to put in place new development policies. Vischer (2005) used the example of the new style of managerial offices, where employees can view the managers working to symbolise the increased need for an interpersonal approach to managerial work. Whilst managers traditionally took a scientific based approach to implementing new policies, for instance the labour process conceptualization cited by Ramsay et al (2000) the modern way of reachi ng a workforce is via a transactional leadership approach. Not only does this feedback, group based style work in terms of productivity results alone (Deluga 1988) it gives managers more authority to properly put policies into practice. BassÃ¢â¬â¢ 1985 study justifies this success of transactional leadership by noting an increased employee confidence. Bass noted that a contactable manager with charisma fulfils the traditional leader role that many workforces look for when deciding whether or not to adopt a new policy. However there are other factors a manager must consider when attempting to promote new development policies, primarily there is the direct influence the manager has on the individual. This is especially vital for development policies as they are regarding individual people and so workers would resist policy changes from a manager whom they feel has no connection or influence on the person that they are. Important factors in this topic range from the face to face nece ssity for successful managers, as Dambrin (2004) demonstrated how the reduction of this direct communication in home based telephone workers significantly reduces the need for managers altogether, to the findings by Cleveland et al (2003) which noted the increased influence that managers of similar ages to their staff enjoy. Whilst this element is of little use to many managers (as they cannot help their relative age to the workforce) the concept that employees are willing to accept policy changes from people whom they consider to be similar to them is extremely useful. Therefore the practical use of these findings is in the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s tactics in dealing with their staff. There is much research that centres on this factor (Furst and Cable 2008, Wayne et al 2006) and recent findings suggest that managers adopt a highly individualistic based style when implementing development policies, as managerial influence is not equally perceived by workers (Barton and Deschamps 1988.) Lawl er et al (2007) highlighted that older, more highly educated employees feel they should have more say in their own development. Therefore the avocation must be for managers to manage their workforce reactively, not according to a pre-set plan of action (Niederkofler 2002.) Conclusion This report has investigated the extent to which a human resources manager can realistically implement policies regarding development in their workplace. Firstly the importance of human resources as an organizational function was explored, from CascioÃ¢â¬â¢s generic quote to how human resource is now seen as essential in many modern businesses (Teece et al 1997, Barney and Wright 1996.) As personnel development is undoubtedly a vital issue in modern organizations (Torraco and Swanson 1995, Nadler 1970) the issue became how a manager can overcome the ideological gap between themselves and the workforce (Miles 1965.) The aspects that allow managers to do this and successfully implement development policies were tackled in firstly terms of employee expectations for managers, where Mehra and BrassÃ¢â¬â¢ communication recommendations and ErautÃ¢â¬â¢s views on emotional intelligence were a focal point, and secondly the managerial influences on their staff such as the use of transform ational leadership and the individualistic style proposed by Barton and Deschamps (1988.) In this way managerial work is very much a self fulfilling prophecy where their expectations for the workforce will likely become reality (Swanson 1995,) and in this context managers should use this information about how to approach issues to their advantage, due to the power value of information as seen by Goad (2002.) References Arthur, J.B. (1994) Effects of Human Resource Systems on Manufacturing Performance and Turnover. The Academy of Management Journal, Vol 37, No 3 (June 1994) pp 670-687. Barney, J. B. & Wright, P. M. (1997). On becoming a strategic partner: The role of human resources in gaining competitive advantage (CAHRS Working Paper #97-09.) Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, School of Industrial and Labour Relations, Centre for Advanced Human Resource Studies. Barton, D.L. and Deschamps, I. (1988) Managerial Influence in the Implementation of New Technology. Management Science, Vol 34, No 10 (October 1988) pp 1252-1265. Bass, B.M. (1985) Leadership: Good, better, best. Organizational Dynamics, Vol 13, Issue 3, pp 26-40. Bradley, S.J. (2002) WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s workingBriefing and evaluating workplace performance improvement. Journal of Corporate Real Estate, Vol 4, Issue 2, pp 150-159. Cascio, W.F. (1991) Costing Human Resources: The financial impact of behaviour in organizations. (3rd ed) Boston: PWS-Kent Pub. Cherniss, C. (2001) Emotional intelligence and organizational effectiveness. Jossey-Bass publications. Drucker, P. (1994) The practice of management. New York: Harper. Cleveland, L.M. Jeanette, N. Goldberg, C.B. (2003) Work attitudes and decisions as a function of manager age and employee age. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 88, Issue 3 (Jun 2003) pp 529-537. Dambrin, C. (2004) How does telework influence the manager-employee relationshipInternational Journal of Human Resources Development and Management. Vol 4, No 4, pp 358-374. Deluga, R.J. (1988) Relationship of Transformational and Transactional Leadership with Employee Influencing Strategies. Group Organization Management, Vol 13, No 4, pp 456-467. Dunford, B.B. Snell, S.A. and Wright, P.M. (2001) Human resources and the human resource based view of the firm. Centre for advanced human resources studies working paper, Cornell University. Eraut, M. (2004) Informal learning in the workplace. Studies in Continuing Education Vol 26, Issue 2. Ferris, G.R. Hochwarter, W.A. Buckley, M.R. Harrell-Cook, G. and Frink, D.D. (1999) Human Resources Management: Some New Directions. Journal of Management, Vol 25, No 3 (June 1999) pp 385-415. Furst, S.A. Cable, D.M. (2008) Employee resistance to organizational change: Managerial influence tactics and leader-member exchange. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 93, Issue 2 (March 2008) pp 453-462. Garrick, J. (1998) Informal learning in the workplace: Unmasking human resources development. Routledge publishing. Geroy, G.D. Wright, P.C. and Jacoby, L. (2000) Toward a conceptual framework of employee volunteerism: an aid for the human resource manager. Management Decision, Vol 38, Issue 4, pp 280-287. Goad, T.W. (2002) Informational literacy and workplace performance. Quorum books, 88 Post Road West, Westport. Guest, D.E. Michie, J. Conway, N. Sheehan, M. (2003) Human Resource Management and Corporate Performance in the UK. British Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol 41, issue 2, pp 291-314. Gunnigle, P. (1977) Personnel Policy Choice: The Context for Human Resource Development. 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Friday, January 10, 2020
The Hidden Facts on Essay Samples for Gre Global admission with only a three-year undergraduate degree might be admitted if the 2015 Committee triangle that their complete academic profile and general application are strong enough. The significant errors that students commit within this section are because of the confusions which exist between the 2 Essays. After you have completed filling out the form, you can just hit submit. Even in the event the deadline is truly tight, feel free to get hold of our managers. Read about the way that it's a developing issue in business school admissions. The internet application will help you through each step. If you're asking for an internship, you will probably have to submit a cover letter as a portion of your application. As soon as you've gotten your GMAT score into the suitable variety, the most essential thing you can do is write excellent essays, not try and push your score. Essay Samples for Gre Options Finally the studio must ask whether the proportion of positive reviews is a really appropriate approach to measure the possible effect of movie reviews. Unfortunately, we're not able to endorse this online writing service. If you like you may look online and find one that you like. Simply take a long and tough look at our on-line advertising. Not only do you have to read through GRE sample essays, but you should also look for topics on which you are able to write GRE sample essays yourself and have them evaluated. It is an entire outlin e of the way to prepare an argumentative essay for college. Nowadays you know what it requires to receive an ideal essay score. For more information concerning the different rubrics for the various essay tasks, read our articles about how to compose perfect-scoring GRE Issue and Argument essays. It provides you a lot of ideas which will help you form your essay without difficulty. There are quite a lot of websites that can help you in evaluating your essays and also in supplying you with useful GRE sample essays. Find out more about tips to boost your MBA. To begin with, utilize the perfect-scoring sample GRE essays within this guide as models of potential strategies to achieve the essay tasks. The many buying achieved by the enormous number of people has brought for us win-win situation. The survey could have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions specializing in river sports. A lot of people do an internship for a way to construct connections with others in that area. The response to this question needs a survey to determine the reasons our residents use or don't use the river. The location of the community is a compelling reason behind a considerable rise in the property prices. Rise in property rates of a specific area might also be credited to infrastructural development above a time period. Likewise, the writer is optimistic about the state promise to wash the river. Choosing Good Essay Samples for Gre Be it midnight or early in the early hours, we're always at your services. Thus, the proposal to boost funding for riverside recreational facilities might not be justified. Though there have been complaints, we don't know if there have been numerous complaints from a broad scope of people, or maybe from a couple of individuals who made numerous complaints. You will sure to acquire consistent and terrific feedback in time. Understanding Essay Samples for Gre Unfortunately, in this instance the writing was far below even the most fundamental standards. However, such lucid prose may be countered by means of an over-reliance on abstractions and reaso ning that isn't entirely powerful. We must hear the origin of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. You may then practice replicating successful connections between ideas in your practice essays. Essay Samples for Gre Features Even in case you recognize a method as a all-mighty and it's extremely over-spec to your requirements, you cannot find the result you desire. If you compose a sample job. BUN tests should be done a specific way. It won't be any different than every other blood test you've received.
Thursday, January 2, 2020
Mark Twain, American humorist and novelist, captured a world audience with stories of boyhood adventure and with commentary on man s shortcomings that is humorous even while it probes, often bitterly, the roots of human behavior. His writing, Shelley Fisher Fishkin who is one of the leading scholars on the work of Mark Twain in American culture and literature observes, involves an entreaty to rethink, reevaluate and reformulate the terms in which one defines both personal and national identity. Twain hoped to coax us out of our timid and suspicious privacy and into recognition of human equality and of the dignity of self-governing citizenship. Evidently at odds with so much of established opinion, this high aim was only another reasonÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In Ã¢â¬Å"The War PrayerÃ¢â¬ Twain argues against the philosophy of imperialism. This essay was written in 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s when America was caught up in the idea of imperialism and extending its influence to other countrie s using military prowess. He reveals that praying for success in war is also praying for the defeat of another nation. He questions what exactly the people are praying for. Even though it appears that the people are praying for the safety of their soldiers, in the end it can be concluded that they are praying for destruction of another civilization. But the argument does not stop here: the last line of the essay says, Ã¢â¬Å"It was believed afterward that the man was a lunatic, because there was no sense in what he said (Twain, 682). After bringing forth the harm caused by war, the aged stranger is dismissed as a lunatic. The charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ sheer ignorance leads them to believe that GodÃ¢â¬â¢s messenger, who has posed these questions, must be just an insane old man thus illuminating the public opinion in the early 90s. The sentences in Ã¢â¬Å"The War PrayerÃ¢â¬ are lean, accelerated, cadenced, and charged with imagery. The premise on which their authority dependsÃ¢â¬âin this case, that official and religious canÃ¢â¬â¢t conceal seeds of their abominable corollaries Ã¢â¬âis self-evident and irrefutable. At its core, Ã¢â¬Å"The War-PrayerÃ¢â¬
Tuesday, December 24, 2019
In 1492, Christopher Columbus sailed the ocean blue. This was the very first step in starting the Columbian exchange. The Columbian exchange was the process of the New World and the Old World transferring ideas, plants, animals, culture, human populations, and manufactured goods across the Atlantic Ocean throughout the 15th and the 16th century. Even though there were many positive results out of the exchange including the finding of the Americas, new plant and animal species, and the Europeans gaining more land to grow their Old-World crops, the overall effects were negative. The Columbian exchange was not as successful as it was made out to be because there were over ten major disease outbreaks in both the Old and New world, EuropeansÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Although there is very few examples of diseases spreading from the New World to the Old World, that does not mean they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t as devastating as the Old-World diseases. Syphilis is a New World disease that was fata l and had severe symptoms. They included genital ulcers, rashes, large tumors, severe pain, dementia, and eventual death. Over time, as the disease evolved, its symptoms changed, becoming more benign and less fatal (Nunn and Qian, p.4). There are two theories of the origins of syphilis is one being the Ã¢â¬Å"Columbian hypothesisÃ¢â¬ and the other being the Ã¢â¬Å"pre-Columbian hypothesisÃ¢â¬ . The Columbian hypothesis states that the disease-causing agent Treponema pallidum originated in the New World and was spread in 1493 by Christopher Columbus and his crew who acquired it from the native people of Hispaniola through sexual contact. When men joined the military campaign in Spain they would bring back prostitutes in their camp sites which would amplify the disease throughout Europe when they returned. The pre-Columbian hypothesis states that syphilis has always been in the Old World. since no accounts of the disease were made prior to the 1490s because it could not be differ entiated from other disease with similar symptoms, it was made to believe that it was always around just not classified yet. Many human populations were decimated byShow MoreRelatedEssay on Positive and Negative Effects of the Columbian Exchange788 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAlthough Columbuss revelation of the New World to the Old World caused deadly diseases to both hemispheres, a loss of preservation of native American culture in the New World, and the unhealthy effect of tobacco in the Old World, it made an overall positive impact in lasting terms by the introduction of religion and horses and cattle in the New World and the new agriculture advancements and alpacas. The Eastern-Western hemisphere encounter was obviously positive in the Western hemisphere becauseRead MoreThe Positive Effects Of The Columbian Exchange1051 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Columbian Exchange The Columbian Exchange was the transfer of plants, animals, human populations, diseases, cultures, and ideas throughout the world. The new worlds that had been discovered were a part of this Columbian Exchange, and were exposed to many new and foreign goods as well as people. The Americas, or New World, were faced with harsh treatment from Columbus and his crew, along with the rampant spread of new diseases that took a large toll on the Native populations. The Indies were alsoRead MoreThe Positive Effects Of The Columbian Exchange1643 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe term Ã¢â¬Å"Columbian ExchangeÃ¢â¬ refers to the massive transfer of life between the Afro-Eurasian and American hemispheres that was precipitated by ColumbusÃ¢â¬â¢ voyage to the New World . It was known as the widespread interchange of plants, animals, diseases, culture, human populations and technology between Europe and the Americas. After ColumbusÃ¢â¬â¢ arrival to the Americas, the plant, animal and bacterial life b egan to mix between the Americas, which was also referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"New WorldÃ¢â¬ and Europe,Read MorePositive Effects Of The Columbian Exchange703 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesthe time period known as the Columbian Exchange. Most of what the Europeans took from the Exchange was good, but some of what they brought was devastating to the people in the New World. Although, this time period was very brutal for the Native Americans, the Columbian Exchange resulted in the transmitting of new technologies, an increase in remedies and cures for diseases, and a growth in resources such as food that helped to improve life. During the Columbian Exchange there were civilizations thatRead MoreThe Cultural Impacts Of The Columbian Exchange775 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Columbian Exchange By definition, the Columbian Exchange is described as the transatlantic flow of goods, people, and diseases, beginning with Christopher ColumbusÃ¢â¬â¢s voyages and discovery of the New World in 1492. (Give Me Liberty!) This interpretation, however, does not give this event the acknowledgement it deserves, as the effects of this complex transaction made a significant impact of the modern history of the world. It completely shaped the world humans live in today, from the languagesRead MoreWhat Was The Columbian Exchange? Essay1618 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesresult of this was The Columbian Exchange in which there was a large trade of animals, plants, technology, culture, slaves, diseases, and even new religions. This exchange effected the way Europeans, Americans, Asians, and Africans lived their daily lives. The Columbian exchange was by far one of the most paramount events in the history of world technology, agriculture, culture, and ecology. In this research paper the following will b e answered: What is the Columbian Exchange? Plants and animals transportedRead Morecolumbian exchange817 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ The Columbian Exchange The Columbian exchange created an enormous interchange of various political ideas, cultures, foods, diseases, animals, and people between the old world and the new world, this give and take relationship caused many changes some positive and some negative between the two areas and help redistribute resources between the two hemispheres. There were many positive things that happened as a result of the Columbian exchange. Potatoes and corn became major food sources forRead MoreAmerica Before Columbus And The Columbian Exchange1597 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe fact that it was not merely the arrival of conquistadors and colonists that irrevocably changed the landscape of the Americas, but that it was also the coined term known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Columbian ExchangeÃ¢â¬ that afforded these travelers the ability to proliferate so successfully. The basic definition of the Columbian exchange is one that defines the importation of European flora and fauna. It could also loosely represent other imports, both intended and unintended, such as tools, implements, and even diseaseRead MoreThe Age Of Exploration : John Winthrop1546 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesquotes of the first Governor of Massachusetts, John Winthrop. The Age of Exploration ultimately had a more negative impact on the New World because of the invasion of European plantlife, the spread of disease, and the development of the Transatlantic Slave Trade The Age of Exploration contains both benefits and harms to the groups of people, animals, and land that is associated. The damaging effects of the Age of Exploration were directed, for the most part, upon the people and land of the New WorldRead MoreColumbian Exchange Dbq889 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesColumbian Exchange BBQ The Columbian Exchange was a major milestone in the diffusion of the New and Old World. In 1492, Columbus arrived in the Bahamas(2), where he first came in contact with Native Americans. There, both exchanged their cultures such as crops, animals, metals, and germs, hence the name, Colombian Exchange. This has brought about both positive and negative effects. While some negative impacts are exemplified by the near-genocide of Amerindians, the demerits are outweighed by the